Category Archives: We Are Quoted

FDA considers black box warning for all breast implants

Mariel Carbone, WCPO Cincinnati: February 09, 2020


Although many other survivors choose implants after their mastectomies, [Lily McBreen is] adamant that she won’t. Having almost lost her life once, she’s worried the side effects of receiving breast implants could endanger it again.

[…]

“I wanted to avoid the rheumatological symptoms that have been out in the news for so many decades,” she said. “There has been so many accounts of women complaining of problems with them.”

Those symptoms, which women are calling “breast implant illness,” are among the many reasons the United States Food and Drug Administration could soon take extreme measures when it comes to educating the public about implants.

[…]

Currently, the black box warning exists only as a draft while the FDA continues to consider its implementation.

The draft warning outlines three main concerns.

First, “breast implants are not considered life time devices” and women may require more surgery if complications occur.

It also states that implants have been associated with BIA-ALCL.

[…]

Finally, it describes how some patients have reported a variety of symptoms, including “joint paint, muscle aches, confusion, chronic fatigue, autoimmune disease and others.”

The FDA is also proposing a patient decision checklist, which would include situations in which the device should not be used, considerations for a successful breast implant candidate, risks of surgery, the importance of using an appropriate physician, the risk of BIA-ALCL and other symptoms and discussion of other options.

Still, some have said these proposals don’t go far enough, including Diana Zuckerman who is President of the National Center for Health Research. The center initiated the Breast Implant Working Group, which is made up of six experts including patient advocates and plastic surgeons.

“The FDA’s draft Black Box warning is too vaguely worded on BIA-ALCL and breast implant illness, and includes jargon that will not be understood by all patients,” the working group said in a statement. “The FDA draft Black Box states that ‘breast implants have been associated with the development of a cancer of the immune system called breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL).’ Association implies correlation rather than causation. In fact, the evidence is clear that breast implants can cause BIA-ALCL.”

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No Shortage of Controversies for New FDA Commissioner

Thomas M. Burton, The Wall Street Journal: January 29, 2020


New Food and Drug Administration commissioner Stephen M. Hahn rises at 4 a.m. each day for an hour of intensive strength and stamina training. On stressful days, he fits a second workout in during the late afternoon.

Dr. Hahn, 60, takes over an FDA under fire for failing to adequately respond to the health threat from growing use of e-cigarettes and vaping products. This spring, he and the agency will face applications from e-cigarette companies and have to decide what e-cigarette products can qualify to stay on the market.

[…]

Dr. Hahn also faces thorny decisions on stem-cell research and use of cannabidiol, or CBD, that will likely put him in the hot seat between rival advocacy groups.

The man taking on these challenges comes to the FDA with a sterling reputation in medicine and management, but with no previous government experience, unlike his predecessor Scott Gottlieb. That has some concerned about his ability to tackle the issues ahead.

“Always we have concerns when someone comes in who doesn’t know the FDA, which is a complex organization,” said Diana Zuckerman, president of the public-interest research group National Center for Health Research in Washington.  “I never think it’s a good idea.”

What’s more, Dr. Hahn may not have long to make his mark if Mr. Trump fails to win re-election Nov. 3. “It’s a hard thing to come in with so little time [in the president’s term] and so little government experience,” said a former FDA commissioner, Robert Califf, who served under President Obama. “It’s so difficult to change policy with so little time.”

Dr. Hahn didn’t immediately comment for this article.

[…]

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Device warning letters plunged nearly 90% over 5 years. An FDA official predicts a rebound

FDA warning letters to medical device manufacturers slid by nearly 90% between 2015 and 2019, but may be set to rebound upward in 2020, according to device center Associate Director for Compliance and Quality Erin Keith. Warning letters are used by FDA to alert a manufacturer it “has significantly violated FDA regulations,” such as misstating what a device is indicated for or having poor manufacturing practices, according to the agency.

[…]

Diana Zuckerman, president of the National Center for Health Research, said the trend is emblematic of a regulator that is overly focused on pleasing industry.

“It could have several different causes, reorganization could be one. [Medical Device User Fee Amendments] regulations could be part of it, which requires more meetings. But there is this emphasis on customer service, which is defined as making life easier for the industry. Industry is an important customer, but so is the American taxpayer,” Zuckerman said.

[…]

Another method FDA has utilized is increasing the number of alternative methods of disseminating information, such as issuing Letters to Health Care Providers and Safety Communications. For example, in April 2019, the agency issued a safety communication alerting patients and providers of mammography problems at a medical clinic in Ohio, noting the facility “was unable to meet the parameters for a key quality control test on the day of the 2018 annual inspection.” FDA noted in the safety communication quality problems at East Palestine Family Medical Clinic dated back to October 2017, and recommended patients screened at the facility receive an additional mammography.

[…]

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Medical Professors are Supposed to Share Their Outside Income With the University of California. But Many Don’t.

For nearly two decades, Dr. Neal Hermanowicz has led the movement disorders program at the University of California’s Irvine campus, where he earns more than $380,000 a year in salary and bonuses. The widely respected expert on Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases adds to his income by consulting for drug companies.

[…]

In recent years, internal audits at the university’s Irvine and San Francisco campuses have both found that, of a sample of health science faculty, about one-quarter weren’t disclosing all of their outside income. ProPublica’s investigation and the audits show that campus administrators fail to monitor or enforce the rules adequately, and that they rarely penalize violators — a testament, critics say, both to the power of tenured faculty and the university’s desire to accommodate pharmaceutical companies that fund academic research. The underreporting at the UC campuses contrasts with the increase in researchers’ disclosures of potential conflicts in academic journals.

[…]

After Nuplazid hit the market, reports of deaths associated with the drug surged. “It’s a very high number” of deaths, said Diana Zuckerman, president of the National Center for Health Research. While it’s difficult to determine why there are so many fatalities, she said, the drug’s benefit isn’t worth the risk. In hundreds of cases, patients’ hallucinations, which are supposed to subside with the drug, were instead aggravated.

[…]

Some faculty members do take pains to comply with the university’s policy on outside income. Dr. Anjay Rastogi, a professor and clinical chief of nephrology at UCLA medical school, meticulously tracks all payments he receives from industry in a centralized spreadsheet — and remits the required portion, which he said funds academic enrichment, teaching or research.

“We need to disclose everything, I disclose more rather than less,” he said. “In my opinion, it’s fair that we help the university, and they help us as well.”

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Report Claims More Women than Men Injured by Medical Devices

Steps had to be taken to identify the gender of those within the database as although the FDA gathers information on the sex of patients, this data is not made publicly available. Therefore, in order to overcome this obstacle, the ICIJ realised that the sex of patients was sometimes disclosed through pronouns and adjectives within the incident reports submitted to the FDA.

[…]

Talking about the findings, the ICIJ stated: “The trend we noticed is consistent with studies that have shown that women experience higher rates of hip-implant failure than men and have stronger immunological reactions to metal-containing devices.”

Other experts within the industry were keen to voice their opinion over the importance of looking at the effects of medical devices on different genders. Diana Zuckerman, president of the National Center for Health Research commented: “Having information about sex is very important because some products differ in safety between men and women.”

[…]

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FDA Challenged Over Metal Implants ‘Public Health Travesty’

Sasha Chavkin, International Consortium of Investigative Journalists: November 14, 2019


Patients who suffered debilitating immune reactions after being implanted with metal-containing devices have joined doctors, scientists and industry representatives to testify before a United States government advisory panel probing the risks of immunological responses to metals placed inside the body.

The hearing represented the most systematic look by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at the issue of adverse reactions to metals, a problem that affects a minority of implant patients but one that can cause severe pain, neurological damage and cognitive impairments.

“I’m in a great deal of pain, so please bear with me,” testified Sue Francis, a hip implant patient who has experienced severe health effects stemming from her reaction to metal. “We need to recognize that these metals from day one are interacting with our bodies.”

Metals are a major component of common devices such as artificial hips, spinal fusion implants and the contraceptive coil Essure, but there is limited scientific research on auto-immune and allergic responses to them.

The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists reported extensively on hip implants and Essure as part of its global Implant Files investigation, which revealed massive gaps in medical device oversight that left patients vulnerable to flawed and poorly tested products.

Patients and their advocates urged the FDA to order more detailed disclosure of the metals used in devices, to require device labels to disclose the risks associated with metals, and to send a letter to doctors across the country alerting them to the threat of adverse metal reactions.

[…]

Unlike hearings earlier this year on breast implants and vaginal mesh that focused on specific products and regulatory steps, yesterday’s hearing focused on trying to understand and improve the state of scientific knowledge on metal reactions.

As such, it is unlikely to result in the short term in dramatic steps such as banning products from the market.

Experts urged the FDA to make the hearing the beginning of a sustained effort to gather data on the problem of metal reactions, including their differential effects among patients of different gender, age and socioeconomic status.

For example, the substantial majority of adverse responses to metal devices occur among women, who are generally more vulnerable to auto-immune, rheumatic and thyroid disorders.

“There’s a need for more and better pre-market research,” said Diana Zuckerman, the president of the National Center for Health Research. “We need to really have better data on diversity of patients.”

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FDA Advisers Hear About Problems, Research Needs With Metal Implants

Mary Jo M. Dales, MedPage Today: November 14. 2019


Reports of adverse events related to metal-containing implants are on the rise. While still rare on a proportional basis, the numbers are increasing as the sheer volume of surgical implants has expanded, an FDA advisory committee was told Wednesday.

At the first day of a two-day meeting of the Immunology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee, members heard from experts that it isn’t easy to tease out which patients are likely to have an adverse event. While patients with a known metal allergy might be an obvious risk group, the ability to screen for these allergies is limited.

And while these devices each have a unique identifier, the metallic components within individual devices are seldom detailed in this labelling further limiting the patient’s ability to avoid a known metal allergy, based on public testimony given during the meeting. Over 50 registered speakers were granted speaking time at the two-day meeting.

In a discussion of an array of histologic, imaging, and serologic studies that might be useful for selected out patients at risk for metal-related adverse events, experts pointed out that these measures alone fell short. Abnormal test results do not reliably predict adverse events. Further, the combinations of tests that might be indicative would be prohibitively expensive to perform on a large population of patients to determine a small sub-population at risk.

As device implantation has grown in recent years, so have problems tied to them. In 2012, for instance, the FDA held a two-day advisory committee meeting to address failure rates and adverse effects from metal-on-metal hip implants. That led the agency a few months later to put restrictions on these products. Still, issues remain around management of patients who received them. And that’s just one type of metallic implant, of which there are hundreds if not thousands.

Earlier in 2019, the FDA announced efforts to further evaluate the safety of specific materials used in medical devices and how to better identify patients who might be at increased risk of experiencing a hypersensitivity response. The agency is accepting public comment on the issue until December 16.

[…]

In public testimony Wednesday, Karin Pacheco, MD, MSPH, an allergist at National Jewish Health and the University of Colorado in Denver, presented data on 1,500 patients with unexplained joint failure referred by their orthopedic surgeons who have ruled out infections and mechanical issues. The findings indicate that half of these patients are sensitized to something in the joint — about a quarter of them to the relevant metal in their implant, about 20% to bone cement, and a smaller proportion to both components.

Further, people with allergies and revised to another implant with different components do “extremely well,” she said. The implications are that sensitization to implant components is a cause of joint failure. “We think that nickel, cobalt and chromium, and maybe titanium, are the culprits, but we need more research.”

“If you have a history of skin reactivity [to device components], then you probably need to be tested” before receiving an implant, she said. Pacheco emphasized that over a million joint replacements are done each year in the U.S. and more of them are going to people ages 45-64.

Diana Zuckerman, PhD, president of the nonprofit National Center for Health Research, urged comparative effectiveness research.

“If certain implants seem to be causing certain reactions with certain kinds of patients, wouldn’t it be very important to know how that compares to other alternatives of the same kind of implants? We can’t treat all hip implants that are polyethylene and metal as if they’re all the same,” she said.

“We can’t treat all metal-on-metal implants as if they’re the same. We need to compare different models, different implants made in different ways with different materials by different companies and get some kind of real data” that patients and physicians can use to make informed decisions, Zuckerman added. Until then, figuring out how much is due to patient vulnerabilities and how much is the difference between various devices will remain challenging.

Several speakers detailed their personal experiences of adverse events, including neurologic and rheumatologic events that followed their receiving an implant. Linda Radach said she received a metal-on-metal hip implant requiring two subsequent revision surgeries, concluding, “The bottom line between all the harm is the materials. Go after that. Set rigid standards for biocompatibility testing.”

[…]

The Immunology Devices Panel will hear additional comments on Thursday, especially in regard to dental amalgam, and will respond to a series of questions posed by FDA staff.

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When Recalls Fail: Many harmful products remain in homes and stores. Why that happens, what needs to change, and how to protect yourself.

Rachel Rabkin Peachman, Consumer Reports: October 31, 2019


Antibiotic-resistant strains of salmonella are linked to contaminated chicken, sickening many and hospitalizing more than 200 people for almost a year and a half, though it was known that the plants processing the chicken had failed federal food safety standards. Why did the outbreak go on for so long before the unsafe chicken was pulled from store shelves?

breast implant lacking premarket safety research is linked to a rare cancer, but years pass and women die before regulators acknowledge the connection and a manufacturer recalls the devices. Why did it take patient outcry before the potentially deadly implants were taken off the market?

An inclined sleeper for babies is put on the market without adequate safety testing or adherence to infant sleep guidelines. Over the next decade, as the sleeper becomes a best seller, dozens of babies die while using it. Why did it take public exposure before the manufacturer recalled the product?

In 21st century America, it’s easy to assume that the products we put on our plates, in our homes, and in our bodies are safe and effective. Many people expect that we have robust consumer protections in place—a system that vets products thoroughly before allowing them to be sold and that recalls products swiftly if they prove to be dangerous.

But product safety regulation and the recall process are part of a complicated and imperfect system that varies widely depending on the type of product, the industries involved, and the government agencies tasked with overseeing it. For instance, a recall does not get put into motion automatically when a product is known to cause harm. Recalls, if they happen at all, can take years to be initiated, often only after public protest and sometimes following injuries or deaths.

Moreover, when a recall is issued, consumers often aren’t made aware. Almost 70 percent of Americans said that they had not heard about a recall in the past five years for any product they own, according to a Consumer Reports nationally representative survey of 1,010 adults, though millions of products are recalled each year. And only 21 percent of Americans said they had heard about a recall and responded to it in that time frame. Of those, about two-thirds said the issue had to do with their car, 19 percent said it involved food, 9 percent a health product, and 9 percent a children’s product.

That disparity is not surprising, says David Friedman, CR’s vice president of advocacy and a former acting administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Unlike other federal agencies, NHTSA requires manufacturers to notify car owners directly about recalls. To track recalls, it helps that every car has a unique vehicle identification number and every owner has a registration. Other agencies—the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Agriculture, and the Consumer Product Safety Commission—generally have fewer tools and requirements for recalls. In some cases, laws can actually shield agencies from accountability and protect companies from liability, Friedman says.

Even when consumers learn about a recall, they often aren’t given simple, effective ways to respond. Some entail disassembling and mailing in part of the product for a refund, or not using the product until a replacement part is mailed—a process that can take months. As a result, many recalled products remain in use, risking further injury.

How, then, can consumers ensure that the products they buy have been safety tested and have not caused problems since their release? In some cases, it’s impossible to fully know. But the examples described here provide a sense of how regulatory oversight sometimes works for—and against—consumers. Plus, we share steps you can take to protect yourself and your family.

[…]

Dangerous Breast Implants

Raylene Hollrah was 33 years old in 2007 when she was diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent a mastectomy. A year and a half later, when she was ready for reconstructive surgery, she chose a silicone-filled implant with a textured surface made by Allergan. Hollrah, from Hermann, Mo., believed a selling point of the implant was that she’d automatically be enrolled in a 10-year study “so I could help other women,” she says.

What Hollrah didn’t know is that medical devices—including breast implants, artificial joints, and pacemakers—are subject to much less rigorous premarket testing than drugs are. That’s partly because the FDA didn’t begin regulating medical devices or requiring research on their efficacy and safety until 1976, after many devices were already in use.

Silicone breast implants were introduced in the 1960s with little to no safety research, says Diana Zuckerman, Ph.D., president of the National Center for Health Research. Even after the FDA began regulating them, the agency didn’t require premarket studies until 1991—when it determined there was insufficient safety research, and soon after put a moratorium on sales.

In 2006, when the FDA did approve silicone implants, it was on the condition that manufacturers conduct post-market studies, one of which included Hollrah. But that wasn’t made clear to her early on. And as time passed, more problems emerged. In 2011, the FDA announced a link between silicone- and saline-filled implants and a form of cancer called anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL).

But Hollrah didn’t learn about breast implant associated ALCL, or BIA-ALCL, until 2013, when one of her implants swelled and she tested positive. “I removed breast cancer,” Hollrah says, “and then I put something right back in my body that gave me cancer again.”

Around the time of Hollrah’s diagnosis, Allergan dropped her from its post-approval study. In fact, Allergan lost track of many participants, in part because it was difficult to follow up with the women, who were given no real incentives to stay involved in the studies, Zuckerman says. As a result, the research was never completed. Yet the FDA did not penalize manufacturers or recall the implants.

Fortunately for Hollrah, her cancer was caught early. She had her implants removed in 2013 and is now cancer-free.

But it wasn’t until July 2019 that the FDA announced the recall of Allergan’s textured implants due to a reported worldwide total of 573 BIA-ALCL cases, 481 of them from Allergan, including 33 deaths.

When asked why it took eight years after the FDA acknowledged the risk of BIA-ALCL for the agency to request a recall, an FDA spokesperson said it took the action after learning, in the spring of 2019, of “a significant increase in known cases of BIA-ALCL.”

Though the recall is a victory for women affected by BIA-ALCL, other concerns remain. For one, “when medical devices are recalled, there’s typically not a rigorous process to reclaim the flawed products,” says Lisa McGiffert, a co-founder of the Patient Safety Action Network and a former patient-safety expert at CR.

There’s also no established system for device manufacturers to find and notify doctors and patients about a recall. Hollrah notes that she has yet to receive a recall notification from Allergan.

For its part, Allergan says that “patient safety is a priority” and that it is committed to ensuring the safe and effective use of its products.

Still, hundreds of thousands of women are estimated to have a recalled device in their bodies and no easy choices. The FDA recommends implant removal only for women with a diagnosis of BIA-ALCL. But women don’t always have obvious symptoms. “Although BIA-ALCL is treatable if caught early, no one wants to wait to see if they get cancer,” says Sara Castro, an attorney at Farr law firm in Punta Gorda, Fla., who is working with affected women.

Another hurdle: Though Allergan will pay for replacement implants in the case of a cancer diagnosis or implant defect, it doesn’t cover the surgical costs of preventive implant removal. Most insurers won’t cover it, either.

Scot Glasberg, M.D., past president of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons and a consultant for Allergan, says that “if a woman has any concerns whatsoever, she should see a plastic surgeon who is board certified,” specializes in breast implants, and is knowledgeable about BIA-ALCL to go over her screening and testing options.

Women considering breast-implant surgery (or any medical device procedure) should ask their surgeon for an informed consent form that details what the device contains, and known risks. “This form is not mandated yet,” says Hollrah, who did not have that protection before her surgery and has since worked with Zuckerman, Glasberg, and others to develop a patient form and clearer warnings. And they have made progress on that front: On October 24, 2019, the FDA recommended that patient labeling for breast implants include a patient decision checklist, a boxed warning, an information booklet, and a patient device card. A final decision on that recommendation isn’t expected until 2020 at the earliest. 

Madris Tomes, a former program manager at the FDA who now runs Device Events—which gathers adverse event reports on medical devices—recommends researching your device. One free source is an online FDA database called MAUDE (Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience). “Two-thirds of all recalls begin as an adverse event report,” Tomes says.

[…]
Read the original article here.

FDA calls for new warnings for breast implants

Laurie McGinley, The Washington Post: October 23, 2019.


The Food and Drug Administration, under fire from women who say they were harmed by breast implants, proposed on Wednesday that manufacturers detail possible complications from the devices, including rare cancers, a range of other symptoms and the need for additional surgeries.

The agency recommended that manufacturers use a boxed warning — the FDA’s strictest caution — to clearly spell out the risks of implants, including that they are not lifetime devices and that the chances of complications increase over time. The warning also would list the devices’ association with a rare form of lymphoma and say some patients have reported fatigue, muscle aches and joint pain.

The agency also proposed that patients be given a checklist to guide conversations with their surgeons about the risks and benefits of implants before women put down deposits for their surgeries. The move is a response to complaints from patients who said they weren’t adequately told about potential problems before surgery.

“We have heard from many women that they are not fully informed of the risks when considering breast implants,” FDA Principal Deputy Commissioner Amy Abernethy and Jeff Shuren, director of the agency’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health, said in a statement. The new recommendations are “designed to help inform conversations between patients and health care professionals when breast implants are being considered,” they added.

The FDA’s steps are the latest effort to deal with reports of complications involving devices that have been at the center of sometimes angry debate and legal actions for decades. The devices are used in about 400,000 surgeries in the United States every year, with 75 percent of the women involved getting implants for cosmetic reasons. Most of the rest get them as part of reconstruction after surgery for breast cancer.

Over the past few years, patients who say they were harmed by the devices have become increasingly active on social media sites that have enabled tens of thousands of patients to exchange information. The emergence of a rare cancer linked to implants in recent years also has drawn more attention to potential health problems associated with implants.

The FDA has said that 573 cases worldwide have linked the implants to a rare cancer since the agency began tracking the issue in 2011. The vast majority of those cases involved Allergan textured implants, which have been recalled. Thirty-three women have died of what’s known as breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a cancer of the immune system, the agency said. At the same time, thousands of women have complained of fatigue, brain fog and other problems that collectively are called “breast implant illness.”

Nicole Daruda, an activist from Vancouver, Canada, who runs one of the most popular websites for women who have had trouble with implants, welcomed the FDA’s announcement, but said it was long overdue. “This is what needs to happen,” said Daruda, who had her implants removed after experiencing several health problems. “But I don’t think it would have without our putting intense pressure” on the agency.

Diana Zuckerman, president of the nonprofit National Center for Health Research who has been working on implant issues for 30 years, said the FDA’s moves are “very important.” But she expressed concern they might yet be weakened, and are not legally binding because they are in the form of “guidance” to the industry. Whether the implant makers actually follow the recommendations “depends on how much pressure the FDA puts on the manufacturers,” she said.

The FDA’s steps are the latest in the agency’s stepped-up scrutiny of the devices, which included a dramatic two-day hearing in March during which many women demanded the FDA take steps to ensure patients have more information about the devices. About the same time, Zuckerman and Scot Glasberg, a past president of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, formed a working group that included activists to make recommendations to the FDA, including for a boxed warning and a patient checklist of possible problems.

What the FDA is proposing “is very close to what we gave them,” Glasberg said, adding that other groups also made suggestions to the agency.

More than 70,000 women also signed a petition asking the FDA to require a checklist. The FDA, in issuing its recommendations on Wednesday, asked for public comment for 60 days before finalizing the guidance.

Breast implants became available in the United States in the 1960s. Three decades later, after years of reports about ruptured devices and possible links to autoimmune diseases, the FDA called for a moratorium on their use, saying manufacturers had not proved the devices’ safety and effectiveness. The devices were available only for cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive procedures, and even then, only as part of a clinical trial. In 2006, the agency lifted the ban, approving two new silicone implants.

In 2011, the FDA issued a safety communication saying that women with breast implants might have a small increased risk of developing the rare lymphoma. In July, the implant maker Allergan announced a worldwide recall of its Biocell textured breast implants after the FDA found a sharp increase in a rare cancer and deaths linked to the products and asked the company to withdraw them from the U.S. market.

The FDA, in its proposed guidance Wednesday, also called for new screening guidelines for possible ruptures, as well as a recommendation that manufacturers include product ingredient information in the devices’ labeling that is easy for patients to understand.

Read the original article here.

Women Should Be Warned of Breast Implant Hazards, F.D.A. Says

Roni Caryn Rabin, NY Times: October 23, 2019


Women considering surgery to receive breast implants should be warned of the risk of serious complications, including fatigue, joint pain and the possibility of a rare type of cancer, the Food and Drug Administration said on Wednesday.

Agency officials are urging manufacturers to print a boxed warning on the packaging of the implants, and to provide a checklist spelling out the risks for patients considering surgery. It will be left to doctors to review those risks with women seeking breast implants.

The measures are not mandatory and are now open to public comment and industry input. But the recommendations reflect a growing acknowledgment at the agency that implants may cause more harm in women than previously known.

Several years ago, the agency linked implants to a rare form of immune system cancer called anaplastic large cell lymphoma. In July, at the request of the F.D.A., one manufacturer, Allergan, recalled textured breast implants linked to the cancer.

More recent studies have reported higher rates of autoimmune disease among women with breast implants. Advocates for women with these complications called the F.D.A.’s proposals on Monday “an important step,” but noted that the action is only a recommendation.

“What matters most is what happens next,” said Diana Zuckerman, president of the National Center for Health Research in Washington, who has analyzed breast implant studies and has been advising patients.

She said surgeons should be required to go over the checklist with prospective patients before they put down a deposit.

“If breast implants can cause cancer of the immune system, doesn’t it make sense they can cause other systemic problems of the immune system?” Dr. Zuckerman asked.

Millions of women have implants, silicone sacks filled with saltwater or silicone gel that are used to enlarge the breasts for cosmetic reasons or to rebuild them after a mastectomy for breast cancer.

Breast augmentation with implants is the most popular cosmetic surgical procedure. Some 313,000 augmentations were performed in 2018, a 4 percent increase over the number in 2017. Breast reconstruction after cancer surgery accounts for another 100,000 procedures.

But thousands of women with implants have reported developing debilitating illnesses, such as severe muscle and joint pain, weakness, cognitive difficulties and fatigue — a constellation of symptoms some experts call “breast implant illness.”

Some of the ailments are forms of connective tissue disease, which includes lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and other serious autoimmune conditions.

Dr. Zuckerman has found that most breast implant studies were carried out by manufacturers or plastic surgery associations and did not track long-term outcomes, or lost so many participants to follow-up that results were not meaningful.

The studies focused on well-defined illnesses, she said, ignoring debilitating symptoms that lacked specific diagnoses, and most were too small to detect rare diseases.

Earlier this year, the agency warned two implant manufacturers that they had failed to carry out adequate long-term safety studies of implants, which had been mandated as a condition of their approval.

The proposed checklist and boxed warning were developed in response to demands by patients who testified last March at an advisory panel meeting about illnesses they blamed on their implants.